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Seattle-Denver Center of Innovation (COIN)


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COIN Investigators & Staff

COIN Investigators


Edwin S. Wong, PhD, MA
Title: Core Investigator
Research Associate Professor, Department of Health Systems and Population Health, University of Washington
Location: Seattle
University of Washington webpage

Research Interests

Dr. Wong is a health economist and health services researcher with a diverse portfolio of federally funded research. His work applies big data analytics to address questions in four key areas: 1) understanding economic and policy factors influencing healthcare utilization and costs, 2) examining the economic implications of large-scale health system interventions, 3) assessing the economic burden of chronic disease and 4) developing novel methods applications to improve measurement of health system performance.
Conducting research within VA HSR&D provides an exciting opportunity to put VA’s unique data resources to work for Veterans using state-of-the-art methodological approaches.
The long-term goal of my research is to generate new data-driven insights that helps VA identify more effective ways to deliver care for Veterans.

See Dr. Wong's Dimensions profile that includes: publications, grants, datasets, patents and clinical trials

The following images visualize Dr. Wong's work. The word cloud is drawn from publication titles. The research collaboration map shows research relationships (click the image to enlarge):

Dr. Wong's publication titles indicate his primary work is care of Veterans
Word cloud from pub titles
Dr. Wong's collaborations are primarily from the University of Washington
Research collaboration map
The following research fields have been used to summarize Dr. Wong's publications and grants. The categories are based on 96 publications and 4 grants.
Publications Grants
Clinical Research Health Services
Health Services Clinical Research
Behavioral and Social Science Behavioral and Social Science
Prevention Nutrition
Aging Obesity
Patient Safety Prevention
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  
Mental Health  

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Grants & Funding

Optimizing Employee Well-being and Retention during Electronic Health Record Modernization

Role: Co-PI with Seppo Rinne
Our primary goal is to optimize employee well-being and support the retention of the VA’s workforce during electronic health record modernization (EHRM), one of the most significant and complex organizational initiatives the VA has undertaken.
The process of EHRM substantially disrupts multiple sociotechnical systems and challenges clinicians who rely on the EHR to deliver high-quality care. The success of the VA in providing exceptional health care to Veterans depends on maintaining a fully staffed and high-functioning workforce. However, VA’s EHRM initiative significantly threatens this operational need.
Early work by the study team indicates that EHRM at the first implementation site was profoundly disruptive to frontline clinicians, adversely impacting morale and uncovering narratives of greater absenteeism and turnover. This multi-methods study will generate timely data-driven insights to identify and mitigate undesirable workforce outcomes (e.g., turnover, burnout) resulting from EHRM to ensure VA’s workforce is ready to consistently deliver world-class services to Veterans.
Funder: Veterans Affairs
NIH website

Partnered Evaluation of the Rural Interprofessional Faculty Development Initiative

Funder: Veterans Administration, Office of Rural Health

Multi-level Influences of Alcohol Based Quality and Outcome Measures

Several alcohol-based quality measures have been proposed for broader adoption. However, health systems need more guidance on their optimal use for decision-making.
The proposed research will address this knowledge gap by examining five key quality measures' variability, reliability, and correlates.
Study products, including new innovative report cards, will provide health systems with data-driven insights to quickly and easily identify target areas for quality improvement.
Funder: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
NIH website

Equity Among American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander communities under COVID-19 Telehealth Policy

Role: Co-PI with Ashok Reddy
Funder: University of Washington Population Health Initiative

Economic Impacts of a State-Wide Cardiac Quality Improvement Program

Role: PI
Funder: Foundation for Healthcare Quality

Evaluation of the Effects of Audio-Only Telemedicine in Washington State

Role: Health Economist
Funder: Office of the Insurance Commissioner

Measuring the Longitudinal Relationships between Obesity, Weight Management Intervention, and Medical Expenditure

Role: Co-PI with Katherine Hoerster (PI: Matthew Maciejewski)
About 68% of Veterans are considered overweight or obese. Their weight increases their risk for hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and osteoarthritis. These clinical risks lead obese patients to incur disproportionately high health expenditures.
No prior VA studies have examined the natural history of weight gain, long-term expenditures of normal weight, overweight and obese Veterans, or changes in weight and expenditures attributable to the MOVE! program.
We propose to examine 20-year patterns of VA weight and VA expenditures for Veterans to characterize the long-run scope of the health and economic impacts of obesity in the VA.
Results on these long-term trends will provide context for our proposed evaluation of MOVE!'s clinical and economic impacts on participants. Including identification of specific Veterans subgroups that experience above-average benefits from MOVE!
Funder: Veterans Administration
NIH website
Publications of note:
BMI Trends for Veterans Up to 10 Years After VA Enrollment Following Military Discharge

Measuring the Value of Improving Access to Community Care

Role: PI; Co-I: John Fortney
This study aims to develop innovative econometric methods for measuring the value of provider options from the perspective of Veterans.
The proposed research is timely and policy-relevant in light of the Commission on Care’s top long-term recommendation for transforming VHA through establishing community care networks for Veterans to access high-quality care.
Findings from this study will help inform VA’s rapidly evolving role as a payer. Specifically, developing value measures and identifying provider attributes that significantly increase value to Veterans will help VA assess the adequacy of community care networks and select contract providers to meet Veterans’ health care needs most effectively.
The strategic selection of high-quality provider options available through the Veterans Choice Program and future community care policies are attractive to key operational partners, including the Office of Community Care.
Funder: Veterans Administration
NIH website

COVID-19 Preventive Health Inventory: Evaluating a Primary Care Approach to Catching-Up on Needed Chronic and Preventive Care for Veterans

Role: Co-I with Ashok Reddy
Funder: Veterans Administration

Implementation of Technology Facilitated Evidence Based Practices to Improve Access to High Quality Care for Rural Veterans

Role: Co-I with John Fortney
Funder: Veterans Administration

Strengthening Cerner Implementation for Health Professions Trainees to Optimize Learning and Reinforce Veteran Care (SCHOLAR)

Role: Co-I with George Sayre and Seppo Rinne, MD, PhD
Funder: Veterans Administration

COVID-19 Outcomes Resource Center

Role: Co-I; PI: George N. Ioannou
Funder: Veterans Administration

MOVE!+UP: Testing a Tailored Weight Management Program for Veterans with PTSD

Role: Co-I; PI: Katherine Hoerster
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is common among Veterans and results in poor psychological functioning, quality of life, and physical health. For Veterans, this includes having disproportionately high rates of obesity, partly due to PTSD symptoms interfering with physical activity and a healthy diet.
Unfortunately, Veterans with PTSD have poorer weight loss outcomes than those without PTSD in VA’s existing weight management program, MOVE!.
Based on pilot work, it appears that a weight management program that augments standard PTSD care and targets PTSD-related barriers to weight loss improves weight and PTSD symptoms.
Whether it improves these issues more than routine VA care requires study, which is the focus of the proposed research. The proposed study also seeks to understand factors that would interfere with and facilitate implementing the program in VA if it is effective.
This Veteran-centered, tailored weight loss program may efficiently benefit both the physical and mental health of Veterans with PTSD, addressing standard care limitations.
Funder: Veterans Administration
NIH website
Publications of note:
Testing a tailored weight management program for veterans with PTSD: The MOVE! + UP randomized controlled trial

Digital treatments for opioids and other substance use disorders (DIGITS) in primary care: A hybrid type-III implementation trial

Role: Co-I; PI: Joseph Edwin Glass
Researchers and health systems do not know how to care for large numbers of patients with opioid and other substance use disorders, even though these conditions are increasingly deadly and costly. Digital treatments are an innovative way to reach large numbers of primary care patients with effective treatments. Still, there is inadequate knowledge about how to implement them. This study will provide data on best implementing digital treatments for substance use disorders in primary care.
Funder: National Institute on Drug Abuse
NIH website
Publications of note:
Study protocol for a factorial-randomized controlled trial evaluating the implementation, costs, effectiveness, and sustainment of digital therapeutics for substance use disorder in primary care (DIGITS Trial)

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Recent Publications


Fortney JC, Rajan S, Chen JA, Campbell SB, Nolan JP, Wong E, Sayre G, Petrova V, Simons CE, Reisinger HS, Schnurr PP. A mixed-methods evaluation of why an implementation trial failed to engage veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-focused psychotherapy. J Trauma Stress. 2023 Jun 27. doi: 10.1002/jts.22946. Epub ahead of print.
PMID: 37370238
Learn more about this publication at Dimensions

Wheat CL, Gunnink EJ, Rojas J, Shah A, Nelson KM, Wong ES, Gray KE, Stockdale SE, Rosland AM, Chang ET, Reddy A. Changes in Primary Care Quality Associated With Implementation of the Veterans Health Administration Preventive Health Inventory. JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Apr 3;6(4):e238525. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.8525.
PMID: 37067799
Learn more about this publication on Dimensions

Reddy A, Maynard C, Kaboli P, Rinne ST, Henrikson NB, Nelson KM, Liu CF, Sterling R, Wong E. Identifying Individual and Clinic Characteristics Associated With Primary Care Provider Turnover During Implementation of the Veterans Health Administration Patient-Centered Medical Home. J Ambul Care Manage. 2023 Apr 7. doi: 10.1097/JAC.0000000000000469. Epub ahead of print.
PMID: 37026706
Learn more about this publication on Dimensions

Smith VA, Berkowitz TSZ, Hebert P, Wong ES, Niederhausen M, Pura JA, Berry K, Green P, Korpak A, Fox A, Baraff A, Hickok A, Shahoumian TA, Bohnert ASB, Hynes DM, Boyko EJ, Ioannou GN, Iwashyna TJ, Bowling CB, O'Hare AM, Maciejewski ML. Design and analysis of outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection in veterans. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2023 Apr 4;23(1):81. doi: 10.1186/s12874-023-01882-z. PMCID: PMC10071454.
PMID: 37016340.
Learn more about this publication on Dimensions

Swankoski KE, Reddy A, Grembowski D, Chang ET, Wong ES. Intensive care management for high-risk veterans in a patient-centered medical home - do some veterans benefit more than others? Healthc (Amst). 2023 Feb 8;11(2):100677. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2023.100677. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36764053
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Glass JE, Dorsey CN, Beatty T, Bobb JF, Wong ES, Palazzo L, King D, Mogk J, Stefanik-Guizlo K, Idu A, Key D, Fortney JC, Thomas R, McWethy AG, Caldeiro RM, Bradley KA. Study protocol for a factorial-randomized controlled trial evaluating the implementation, costs, effectiveness, and sustainment of digital therapeutics for substance use disorder in primary care (DIGITS Trial). Implement Sci. 2023 Feb 1;18(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s13012-022-01258-9. PMCID: PMC9893639. PMID: 36726127
Learn more about this publication at Dimensions

Golob AL, Geyer J, O'Keeffe C, Nelson K, Song C, Vanderwarker C, Britton J, Reddy A, Wong E, Schuttner L. Automatic medication refills to improve glycaemic control among patients with diabetes and low medication adherence. BMJ Open Qual. 2023 Feb;12(1):e001985. doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2022-001985.
PMID: 36746551.

O'Connor AW, Wong ES, Nelson KM, Sears JM, Helfrich CD. Patient Enrollment Growth and Burnout in Primary Care at the Veterans Health Administration. J Gen Intern Med. 2023 Jan 25. doi: 10.1007/s11606-023-08034-5. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36697928
Learn more about this publication on Dimensions

O'Connor AW, Helfrich CD, Nelson KM, Sears JM, Singh H, Wong ES. Changes in electronic notification volume and primary care provider burnout. Am J Manag Care. 2023 Jan;29(1):57-63. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2023.89304. PMID: 36716155
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Admon AJ, Wander PL, Iwashyna TJ, Ioannou GN, Boyko EJ, Hynes DM, Bowling CB, Bohnert ASB, O'Hare AM, Smith VA, Pura J, Hebert PL, Wong ES, Niederhausen M, Maciejewski ML. Consensus elements for observational research on COVID-19-related long-term outcomes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Nov 18;101(46):e31248. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000031248. PMID: 36401423.
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Blalock DV, Pura JA, Stechuchak KM, Dennis PA, Maciejewski ML, Smith VA, Hung A, Hoerster KD, Wong ES. BMI Trends for Veterans Up to 10 Years After VA Enrollment Following Military Discharge. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 Oct 11:1–8. doi: 10.1007/s11606-022-07818-5. Epub ahead of print. PMCID: PMC9552734.
PMID: 36219304.
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Zhang IY, Wong ES, Rosen JE, Gordon DB, Flum DR, Liao JM. Association Between Statewide Medicaid Opioid Policy and Postoperative Opioid Prescribing among Surgeons at a Large Safety-Net Hospital. J Am Coll Surg. 2022 Sep 1;235(3):519-528. doi: 10.1097/XCS.0000000000000274. Epub 2022 Aug 10. PMID: 35972173.
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Wong, E. S., Rajan, S., Liu, C.-F., Morland, L. A., Pyne, J. M., Simsek-Duran, F., Reisinger, H. S., Moeckli, J., & Fortney, J. C. (2022). Economic costs of implementing evidence-based telemedicine outreach for posttraumatic stress disorder in VA. Implementation Research and Practice, 3.
Learn more about this publication at Dimensions

Sterling RA, Liu CF, Hebert PL, Fortney JC, Swankoski KE, Katon JG, Wong ES. How did Veterans' Reliance on Veterans Health Administration Outpatient Care Change After Expansion of the Veterans Community Care Program? Med Care. 2022 Aug 11. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001764. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35950930.
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O'Shea AMJ, Haraldsson B, Shahnazi AF, Sterling RA, Wong ES, Kaboli PJ. A Novel Gap Staffing Metric for Primary Care in the Veterans Health Administration and Implications for Rural and Urban Clinics. J Ambul Care Manage. 2022 Aug 4. doi: 10.1097/JAC.0000000000000429. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35943352.
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Fortney JC, Rajan S, Reisinger HS, Moeckli J, Nolan JP, Wong ES, Rise P, Petrova VV, Sayre GG, Pyne JM, Grubaugh A, Simsek-Duran F, Grubbs KM, Morland LA, Felker B, Schnurr PP. Deploying a telemedicine collaborative care intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: A stepped wedge evaluation of an adaptive implementation strategy. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 26;77:109-117. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2022.03.009. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35596963.
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Duan KI, Wong ES, Liao JM, Sabbatini AK, Au DH. Long-Term Trends in Home Respiratory Medical Equipment among US Medicare Patients, 2013-2019. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 May 13. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202202-0238LE. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35549846.
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Moldestad M, Sayre G, Rinne S, Kaboli PJ, Reddy A, Sanders KM, Mao J, Henrikson NB, Sterling R, Nelson KM, Wong ES. Perspectives on Training and Working in the VHA: Implications for Primary Care Physician Recruitment and Retention. Acad Med. 2022 Feb 8. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000004619. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35139527.
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Mohr DC, Swamy L, Wong ES, Mealer M, Moss M, Rinne ST. Critical Care Nurse Burnout in Veterans Health Administration: Relation to Clinician and Patient Outcomes. Am J Crit Care. 2021 Nov 1;30(6):435-442. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2021187. PMID: 34719713.

Duan KI, Helfrich CD, Rao SV, Neely EL, Sulc CA, Naranjo D, Wong ES. Cost analysis of a coaching intervention to increase use of transradial percutaneous coronary intervention. Implement Sci Commun. 2021 Oct 27;2(1):123. doi: 10.1186/s43058-021-00219-5. PMCID: PMC8554885. PMID: 34706775.

Schuttner L, Haraldsson B, Maynard C, Helfrich CD, Reddy A, Parikh T, Nelson KM, Wong E. Factors Associated With Low-Value Cancer Screenings in the Veterans Health Administration. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Oct 1;4(10):e2130581. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30581. PMID: 34677595.

Swankoski KE, Fishman PA, Chi DL, Wong ES. Effects of Medicaid expansion on self-reported use of dental services in socioeconomically vulnerable subgroups. J Public Health Dent. 2021 Aug 31. doi: 10.1111/jphd.12473. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34467538

Wong ES, Done N, Zhao M, Woolley AB, Prentice JC, Mull HJ. Comparing total medical expenditure between patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants vs warfarin for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: evidence from VA-Medicare dual enrollees. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2021 Aug;27(8):1056-1066. doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2021.27.8.1056. PMID: 34337995

Sterling R, Rinne ST, Reddy A, Moldestad M, Kaboli P, Helfrich CD, Henrikson NB, Nelson KM, Kaminetzky C, Wong ES. Identifying and Prioritizing Workplace Climate Predictors of Burnout Among VHA Primary Care Physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 Jul 29:1–8. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-07006-x. Epub ahead of print. PMCID: PMC8321506. PMID: 34327656

Reddy A, Nelson KM, Wong ES. Primary Care Spending in the Veterans Health Administration in 2014 and 2018. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2117533. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17533. PMID: 34279651

Hoerster KD, Tanksley L, Sulayman N, Bondzie J, Brier M, Damschroder L, Coggeshall S, Houseknecht D, Hunter-Merrill R, Monty G, Saelens BE, Sayre G, Simpson T, Wong E, Nelson K. Testing a tailored weight management program for veterans with PTSD: The MOVE! + UP randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2021 Jun 16;107:106487. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2021.106487. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34144246

Hoerster KD, Tanksley L, Sulayman N, Bondzie J, Brier M, Damschroder L, Coggeshall S, Houseknecht D, Hunter-Merrill R, Monty G, Saelens BE, Sayre G, Simpson T, Wong E, Nelson K. Testing a tailored weight management program for veterans with PTSD: The MOVE! + UP randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2021 Jun 16;107:106487. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2021.106487. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34144246



Duan KI, Spece LJ, Wong ES, Feemster LC, Donovan LM, Griffith MF, Keller TL, Bryant AD, Au DH. Low-value Inhaled Corticosteroids in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Association with Health Care Utilization and Costs. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2020 Dec 8. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202009-1128OC. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33290180

Moldestad M, Greene PA, Sayre GG, Neely EL, Sulc CA, Sales AE, Reddy A, Wong ES, Liu CF. Comparable, but distinct: Perceptions of primary care provided by physicians and nurse practitioners in full and restricted practice authority states. J Adv Nurs. 2020 Nov;76(11):3092-3103. doi: 10.1111/jan.14501. Epub 2020 Sep 2. PMID: 32875584

Wong ES, Guo R, Yoon J, Zulman DM, Asch SM, Ong MK, Chang ET. Impact of VHA's primary care intensive management program on dual system use. Healthc (Amst). 2020 Sep;8(3):100450. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2020.100450. Epub 2020 Jul 29. PMID: 32919588

Schuttner L, Wong ES, Rosland AM, Nelson K, Reddy A. Association of the Patient-Centered Medical Home Implementation with Chronic Disease Quality in Patients with Multimorbidity. J Gen Intern Med. 2020 Oct;35(10):2932-2938. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06076-7. Epub 2020 Aug 6. PMCID: PMC7572962. PMID: 32767035

Hebert PL, Wong ES, Reddy A, Batten A, Gunnink E, Wagner TH, Liu CF. Events Associated With Changes in Reliance on the Veterans Health Administration Among Medicare-eligible Veterans. Med Care. 2020 Aug;58(8):710-716. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001328. PMID: 32265354

Wong ES, Oddo VM, Jones-Smith JC. Are Housing Prices Associated with Food Consumption? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 May 30;17(11):3882. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113882. PMCID: PMC7312069. PMID: 32486226

Schuttner L, Reddy A, White AA, Wong ES, Liao JM. Quality in the Context of Value: Reliability of Quality Metrics in an Academic Health System Shifting Toward Value-Based Payments. Am J Med Qual. 2020 Dec;35(6):465-473. doi: 10.1177/1062860620917205. Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32367726

Liu CF, Hebert PL, Douglas JH, Neely EL, Sulc CA, Reddy A, Sales AE, Wong ES. Outcomes of primary care delivery by nurse practitioners: Utilization, cost, and quality of care. Health Serv Res. 2020 Apr;55(2):178-189. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13246. Epub 2020 Jan 13. PMCID: PMC7080399. PMID: 31943190

Hernandez SE, Sylling PW, Mor MK, Fine MJ, Nelson KM, Wong ES, Liu CF, Batten AJ, Fihn SD, Hebert PL. Developing an Algorithm for Combining Race and Ethnicity Data Sources in the Veterans Health Administration. Mil Med. 2020 Mar 2;185(3-4):e495-e500. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz322. PMID: 31603222

Rinne ST, Mohr DC, Swamy L, Blok AC, Wong ES, Charns MP. National Burnout Trends Among Physicians Working in the Department of Veterans Affairs. J Gen Intern Med. 2020 May;35(5):1382-1388. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05582-7. Epub 2020 Feb 24. PMCID: PMC7210363. PMID: 32096080

Reddy A, Gunnink E, Taylor L, Wong E, Batten AJ, Fihn SD, Nelson KM. Association of High-Cost Health Care Utilization With Longitudinal Changes in Patient-Centered Medical Home Implementation. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Feb 5;3(2):e1920500. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20500. PMID: 32022880

Liu CF, Hebert P, Wong ES, Nelson K, Maynard C. Midlife mortality in White non-Hispanic male veterans enrolled in Department of Veterans Affairs primary care, 2003-2014. Heliyon. 2020 Jan 31;6(1):e03328. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03328. PMCID: PMC7002889. PMID: 32051882

Schuttner L, Reddy A, Rosland AM, Nelson K, Wong ES. Association of the Implementation of the Patient-Centered Medical Home with Quality of Life in Patients with Multimorbidity. J Gen Intern Med. 2020 Jan;35(1):119-125. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05429-1. Epub 2019 Oct 30. PMCID: PMC6957610. PMID: 31667750

Wong ES, Schuttner L, Reddy A. Does machine learning improve prediction of VA primary care reliance? Am J Manag Care. 2020 Jan;26(1):40-44. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2020.42144. PMID: 31951358



Chang ET, Piegari R, Wong ES, Rosland AM, Fihn SD, Vijan S, Yoon J. Which patients are persistently high-risk for hospitalization?. Am J Manag Care. 2019 Sep 1;25(9):e274-e281. PMID: 31518099

Wong ES, Maciejewski ML, Hebert PL, Reddy A, Liu CF. Predicting Primary Care Use Among Patients in a Large Integrated Health System: The Role of Patient Experience Measures. Med Care. 2019 Aug;57(8):608-614. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001155. PMID: 31295190

Augustine MR, Nelson KM, Wong ES. Low and Higher Wage Workers Report No Differences in Four Barriers to Primary Care Access. Popul Health Manag. 2020 Apr;23(2):115-123. doi: 10.1089/pop.2019.0028. Epub 2019 Jul 9. PMID: 31287772

Augustine MR, Nelson KM, Fihn SD, Wong ES. Patient-Reported Access in the Patient-Centered Medical Home and Avoidable Hospitalizations: an Observational Analysis of the Veterans Health Administration. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Aug;34(8):1546-1553. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05060-0. Epub 2019 Jun 3. PMC6667567 PMID: 31161568

Wong ES, Maciejewski ML, Hebert PL, Fortney JC, Liu CF. Spillover Effects of Massachusetts Health Reform on Mental Health Use by VA and Medicare Dual Enrollees. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2019 Mar;46(2):145-153. doi: 10.1007/s10488-018-0900-z. PMID: 30343347

Adams SV, Mader MJ, Bollinger MJ, Wong ES, Hudson TJ, Littman AJ. Utilization of Interactive Clinical Video Telemedicine by Rural and Urban Veterans in the Veterans Health Administration Health Care System. J Rural Health. 2019 Jun;35(3):308-318. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12343. Epub 2019 Jan 1. PMID: 30600557